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Research

The following documents are a collection of scientific studies concerning female genital mutilation in the Middle East. A collection of studies about FGM in general and in other countries can be found on FGM Review. Your collaboration is highly welcome. Please do not hesitate to suggest documents we should post here by sending us an email.


Habiba Al Hinai: Female Genital Mutilation in the Sultanate of Oman, January 2014


Al-Khulaidi GA, Nakamura K, Seino K, Kizuki M (2013) Decline of Supportive Attitudes among Husbands toward Female Genital Mutilation and Its Association to Those Practices in Yemen. Graduate School of Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan, Dezember 2013, PLoS ONE 8(12): e83140. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083140

The study shows a small, yet relevant drop in FGM practiced in Yemen. Based on the UN and government implemented Domestic Health Surveys the percentage among most-recently-born daughters who received FGM declined from 29.3% in 1997 and 22.4% in 2003. The rate among daughers of women who had undergone FGM declined from 61.9% in 1997 to 56.5% in 2003. The percentages of women who had undergone FGM and who supported the continuation of FGM and of husbands who also supported its continuation decreased from 78.2% and 60.1% in 1997 to 70.9% and 49.5% in 2003, respectively.


Berivan A. Yasin, Namir G. Al-Tawil, Nazar P. Shabila and Tariq S. Al-Hadithi: Female genital mutilation among Iraqi Kurdish women: a cross-sectional study from Erbil city, September 2013

This cross-sectional study was conducted in the primary health care centers and the Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil city, involving 1987 women aged 15–49 years. The self-reported prevalence of female genital mutilation was 70.3%, while it was 58.6% according to clinical examination of the women’s genitalia. Only 30% of the participants were aware about the health consequences of female genital mutilation. More than one third (36.6%) of the women support the practice and 34.5% have intention to mutilate their daughters.


Rozhgar A. Saleem, Nasih Othman, Fattah H. Fattah, Luma Hazim & Berivan Adnan: Female Genital Mutilation in Iraqi Kurdistan: Description and Associated Factors, August 2013

A cross-sectional survey in Iraqi Kurdistan of females aged up to 20 years using interviews and clinical examination. The survey included 1,508 participants with mean age of 13.5 years. Overall female genital mutilation prevalence was 23%, and the mean age at which it had been performed was 4.6 years. Type I (partial or total removal of the clitoris) comprised 76% of those who had had female genital mutilation. Women aged 16 years and over were more likely to have had female genital mutilation compared to children aged below 6 years. Read also WADI’s press statement on this survey.


Unicef: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A statistical overview and exploration of dynamics of change, July 2013

Unicef has compiled data taken from Multi Indicator Cluster and Domestic Health Surveys in 29 countries.


WADI: Female Genital Mutilation in Iraq: An Empirical Study in Kirkuk Province 2012

This study on female genital mutilation in the Kirkuk region is the first in Iraq outside the Kurdish region. The FGM rate in Kirkuk Governorate was found to be 38.2% of the female population age 14 and older with the Kurdish women being most affected (65%), followed by Arabs (25%) and Turkmen (12%). Analyzed by religious affiliation, the FGM rates are 40% for the Sunnis, 23% for Shiites and nearly 43% for the Kaka’is.


Chibber R, El-Saleh E, El Harmi J. (Kuwait University/ King Faisal University, Dammam, Kuwait): Female circumcision: obstetrical and psychological sequelae continues unabated in the 21st century (2011)

The study assessed the incidence of female genital mutilation among pregnant women in Kuwait and measured the association with maternal morbidity and birth outcome. Among 4800 pregnant women 38% had been mutilated. Women who were circumcised were more likely to have extended hospital stay. There was a positive association between such women and prolonged labor, cesarean section, post-partum hemorrhage, early neonatal death, and hepatitis C infection. 80% continued to have flashbacks to the FGC event; 58% had a psychiatric disorder (affective disorder); 38% had other anxiety disorders, and 30% had post-traumatic stress disorder.


Wafa Marzouqi: Fatal Tradition: Female Circumcision in the U.A.E. (2011)

As a university student Wafa Marzouqi interviewed 200 men and women in the United Arab Emirates, 34% of the women respondents said they were circumcised – while nearly all the men asked about their attitude opposed the practice.


R. Belmaker: Female Genital Mutilation: Successful Social Change Exemplified by Israeli Bedouin and Ethiopian Jews, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beersheva, Israel, Asian Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 4, pp. S1-S2, 2011

In the 1980s six Bedouin tribes in Israel were found to practice FGM. So were Jewish immigrants from Ethopia. In both communities the practice seems to have disappeared according to a follow-up study in 2006.


Human Rights Watch: They took me and told me nothing, Female Genital Mutilation in Iraqi Kurdistan (2010)

Human Rights Watch interviewed girls and women who had undergone the procedure as well as traditional midwives, healthcare workers, clerics, government officials, and nongovernmental organizations in the Kurdistan Autonomous Region in May 2009 for this report. The report includes recommendations to the Kurdish government and parliament, physicians, non-governmental organizations and international donors.


Sharifa A. Alsibiani and Abdulrahim A. Rouzi (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia): Sexual function in women with female genital mutilation, Fertility and Sterility, Volume 93, Issue 3 , Pages 722-724, February 2010

For a clinical research about the possible connection between female sexual dysfunction (FSD) and FGM, conducted in 2007-08, 130 women with FGM were interviewed at a Jeddah clinic, a control group of another 130 had not been cut. Among the mutilated women were migrants but also Saudi women. While there were no significant differences between the two groups found in desire, there were statistically significant differences in their scores for arousal, lubrication, orgasm, and satisfaction.


Suhil Halila, R H Belmaker, Yunis Abu Rabia, Miron Froimovici, Julia Applebaum (Beersheva Mental Health Center, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beersheva, Israel): Disappearance of female genital mutilation from the Bedouin population of Southern Israel, 2/2009

Recently, clinicians in Southern Israel perceived that the practice of female genital mutilation had disappeared entirely in the Bedouin population where prevalence of this practice had been found in 1995.


William G. Clarence-Smith: Islam and Female Genital Cutting in Southeast Asia: The Weight of the Past, Finish Journal of Ethnicity and Migration, 2008


Yemen’s Women’s National Committee: Report on Status of Women in Yemen (2008)

The report quotes an “Analytical Study on FGM in Yemen” by Gender Studies and Researches Center at Sana’a University. According to the study FGM is a common practice in 5 of 22 governerates and is widespread in urban areas with 45 percent in Sana’a. (pp. 25f)


Male and Female Genital Cutting Among Yogyakartans and Madurans, Center for Population and Policy Studies (CPPS), Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia, 2003


UNHCR: Yemen: Report on Female Gentital Mutilation (FGM) or Female Genital Cutting (FGC) (2001)

According to the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funded 1997 Yemen Demographic Mother and Child Health Survey, 23 percent of Yemeni women have undergone FGM. In the sparsely populated Red Sea and Aden Coastal regions, this percentage rises to 69 percent, compared with 15 percent in the heavily populated highlands and 5 percent in the plateau and desert regions.


United States Departement of State: Indonesia: Report on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) or Female Genital Cutting (FGC), 2001

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